How Many Octaves on a Piano? Digital Options and Versatility

The piano is a timeless and versatile instrument that has captivated musicians and music enthusiasts for centuries. One of its defining characteristics is its impressive range, which is determined by the number of octaves it possesses. You may wonder how many octaves are on a piano.

In this article, we will delve into the concept of octaves on the piano and variations of acoustic pianos. Moreover, we will also take a look at modern-day digital options and highlight their advantages and versatility.

What is an Octave?

An octave is a fundamental musical interval that spans eight notes (eight white keys on a piano), including both the starting and ending notes. The standard piano, be it acoustic or digital, typically offers a range of 7 1/3 octaves, allowing musicians to express a wide spectrum of emotions and musical ideas.

Octaves on the Piano

an octave on a piano

The traditional piano, known as the acoustic piano, boasts a rich history and a sonorous tone. It features 88 keys, covering a range of 7 octaves plus three keys at the lowest end, starting from the lowest A (A0) to the highest C (C8).

This expansive range allows pianists to explore a vast array of musical genres and styles, from classical compositions to modern pop and jazz. The piano’s versatility in terms of octaves is a key factor that has contributed to its enduring popularity.

When Did 88 Keys Become Standard on the Piano?

The piano was invented about 300 years ago by Bartolomeo Cristofori (1655-1731) of Padua, Italy. It evolved from the Harpsichord, which had only 49 keys (four octaves). Many early pianofortes had five octaves. During the Classical Period and early Romantic period, the piano-making progressed significantly, and the keyboard range was extended.

In that era, numerous renowned composers pushed the limits of the piano by expecting greater dynamics and employing techniques that surpassed the capabilities of the pianos available at the time.

During the mid-19th century, pianos generally featured 85 keys, but as the century progressed, pianos with the now-common 88 keys began to appear. It wasn’t until the late 1880s, however, that 88 keys became the standard for pianos.

Acoustic Piano Keyboard Variations

bosendorfer imperial 97-key concert grand

Acoustic pianos come in various keyboard configurations.

  • 88 keys (Standard): The most common and widely accepted keyboard configuration for pianos is the 88 keys. It includes 52 white keys and 36 black keys and covers over seven octaves.
  • 85 keys: Some historical pianos and older models might have 85 keys, with a slightly narrower range than modern pianos. If you are playing some old music pieces, it won’t be an issue. However, if you play a fair amount of 20th-century music, then you might want the full 88 keys.
  • 97 keys: The Bösendorfer Imperial Concert Grand Piano has full 8 octaves in tonal range. It offers additional bass notes that vibrate in response to each key press, and the substantial soundboard amplifies the projection of all frequencies. Bartók, Debussy, and Ravel composed additional pieces to take full advantage of the remarkable resonance of this particular instrument.
  • 108 Keys: Stuart & Son, an Australian piano maker, made the first 108-key grand piano in 2018. It gave the piano instrument a new boost.  The piano has consistently evolved in tandem with the range of melodies. The 108-key piano offers pianists and composers new opportunities. Some composers have already written pieces for 108-key pianos, such as Paul Corbin’s Eccentric Prelude No. 1, Opus 20.

Digital Pianos and Keyboards

In recent decades, digital pianos and keyboards have gained popularity due to their portability, affordability, and versatility. These instruments offer a wide range of options in terms of octaves, catering to different needs and preferences. Let’s explore some of the available options on digital pianos and keyboards:

88 key vs 61 keys

Full-Sized Digital Pianos

Many digital pianos aim to faithfully replicate the acoustic piano experience. These typically feature 88 keys and offer the same 7 1/3 octaves as a traditional piano. They are a great choice for pianists who want an authentic feel and sound while taking advantage of modern technology, such as headphone outputs and MIDI connectivity.

Check out our recommendations on the best digital pianos.

Stage Pianos

Stage pianos are designed with portability in mind, making them ideal for gigging musicians. While some stage pianos offer the standard 88 keys, others may have fewer keys to reduce weight and size. Usually, the reduced-size stage pianos are with 76 keys.

Musicians who require the full range of octaves for their performances can still find suitable stage pianos with 88 keys, while those who prioritize mobility might opt for models with fewer keys.

Electronic Keyboards

Keyboards usually do not come with weighted keys. However, many models offer touch-sensitive keyboards, which is a minimum requirement for learning piano.

Electronic keyboards come in various sizes and configurations, offering a range of octaves to suit different purposes.

Entry-level keyboards often have 61 keys (5 octaves) or 76 keys (6 1/3 octaves). These are suitable for beginners, young learners, or musicians with limited space.

Check out our reviews on the five best keyboards with touch sensitivity.


Synthesizers are known for their extensive sound-shaping capabilities. They come in various sizes, and the number of keys can vary widely. Some synthesizers have as few as 25 keys, while others feature a full 88-key range.

Musicians interested in sound design and electronic music production often choose synthesizers based on their specific requirements for octaves and sound manipulation.

You may also interested in Piano vs. Organ.

Advantages and Versatility of Digital Options


Digital pianos and keyboards offer several advantages in terms of octave on piano.


Digital instruments often allow users to customize their octave settings, making them versatile for different musical genres and compositions. Musicians can transpose octaves, split the keyboard into multiple zones, or even layer different sounds across various octaves.


The flexibility in the number of keys means that digital instruments can be more compact and lightweight, making them easier to transport and suitable for musicians on the move. For example, the Casio PX-S3100, a full-size 88-key digital piano, only weighs 25 lbs.


Entry-level digital pianos are much more affordable than acoustic pianos, making them accessible to a broader range of individuals, including beginners and casual musicians.

Many models cost less than a thousand US dollars, such as Donner DDP-80, Casio PX-360, or Roland FP-30X. Some are under five hundred US dollars, like Yamaha P-45 or Alesis Recital Pro.

Sound Variety

Digital instruments often come with a wide range of built-in sounds and effects, allowing musicians to explore diverse musical styles and experiment with different tones and textures across various octaves.

Many quality digital pianos feature expansive sounds from prestigious concert grand pianos. Here are a couple of examples:

  • Kawai KDP120 comes with the celebrated Shigeru Kawai SK-EX concert grand piano sound.
  • Yamaha P-515 includes piano tones from the renowned Yamaha CFX flagship concert grand piano and the distinguished Bösendorfer Imperial grand piano


The number of octaves on a piano is a crucial factor that determines its versatility and musical potential.

While traditional acoustic pianos offer a standard range of 7 1/3 octaves (88 keys), digital pianos and keyboards come in several configurations to address various requirements and inclinations. The versatility and customization options of digital instruments make them an excellent choice for musicians across a spectrum of skill levels and musical genres.

Whether it’s a full-sized digital piano for a classical pianist or a compact keyboard for a budding musician, the world of digital options provides a multitude of choices to explore the rich and expressive world of music.

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